Section-I (25 Marks)

I. Introduction
Basic concepts used in understanding crime, criminality and criminal behaviour.

II. Understanding Criminology
Definition, meaning and scope of criminology; Criminology and criminal law; Crime as social problem; Deviance, Sin Vice, Evil, Norms, Values; Security (Physical, Social, Economic)

III. Crime and Criminals
Occasional criminals, Habitual criminals, Professional criminals, White-collar crime, Organized crime, corporate crimes.

IV. Crime and Criminality: Theoretical Perspectives
Early explanation of criminal behavior
 Biological Theories; Psychological Theories; Sociological Theories.
 Social Disorganization theory
 Strain theory
 Social Control theory
 Learning theory
 Labelling Theory
 Islamic perspective on deviance and crime.

Section-II (25 Marks)

V. Juvenile Delinquency
Meaning, definitions (Behavioral Vs Legal), Juvenile delinquent Vs status offender, Official statistics of juvenile delinquency

VI. Juvenile Justice System
 Role of police
 Juvenile court process:
 pretrial, trial and sentencing
 Role of prosecutor, defense counsel, juvenile judge, juvenile probation officer
 Juvenile correctional institutions; probation and non-punitive alternatives

VII. The Criminal Justice System:
 Police and its role
 Trial and Conviction of Offenders
 Agencies: formal and informal
 Criminal courts: procedures and problems
 Role of prosecutors
 Prisons, Probation and Parole

VIII. Punitive and Reformative Treatment of Criminals
Corporal punishment, Imprisonment, Rehabilitation of criminals.

Section-III (25 Marks)

IX. Criminal Investigation
Principles of criminal investigation, Manual of preliminary investigation, Intelligence operations, Data base investigation, Electronic investigation, Forensic Investigation

X. Techniques of Investigations
Gathering information from persons, Interviewing and interrogation techniques, Criminal investigation analysis,

XI. Legal and Ethical Guidelines for Investigators
Stop and frisk operations, Arrest procedures, Search and seizure.

XII. International Policing and Criminal Justice Monitoring Organizations

Section-IV (25 Marks)

XIII. Modern Concepts in Contemporary Criminology
 Terrorism, Radicalism and War on Terror
 Media’s representation of Crime and the Criminal Justice System
 Modern Law Enforcement and Crime Prevention
 Intelligence-led Policing
 Community Policing
 Private Public Partnership
 Gender and Crime in Urban and Rural Pakistan
 Crime and Urbanization, Organized Crime and White-Collar Crime
 Human Rights Abuses and Protection, especially of Children; Women and
Minorities; The role of civil society and NGOs
 Money-laundering
 Cyber Crime
 Role of NAB, FIA, ANF


Suggested Websites

10. International Society of Criminology (ICS):
11. American Society of Criminology (ASC): 
12. British Society of Criminology (BSC): 
13. European Society of Criminology (ESC):
14. International Police Executive Symposium (IPES);
15. Asian Criminological Society (ACS):
16. Asian Association of Police Studies (AAPS):
17. Campbell Library: 
18. UNAFEI (Japan):
19. Pakistan Society of Criminology (PSC):
20. South Asian Society of Criminology and Victimology (SASCV):


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