I. Animal Diversity-Invertebrates
 Architectural pattern of an animal, Taxonomy and phylogeny, Major subdivisions of animal kingdom.
 Animal-Like Protists: The Protozoa: evolutionary perspective, locomotion and reproduction, Protozoa of veterinary and medical importance.
 Porifera: Body wall, skeleton and water currents system. Coelenterates: Reproduction plan and alteration of generation (Polymorphism), Coral reefs.
 Platyhelminthes and Nematodes: Parasitic adaptations and medical importance. Annelids: Metamerism and ecological importance.
 Molluscs: Modification of foot, Feeding and their role in the shell fishery.
 Arthropods: Modification in their mouth parts, Role of arthropods as vectors in the transmission in microbial infection. Arthropods and their ecological importance.
 Echinoderms: Characteristics, Evolutionary perspective, Relationships to other animals; echinoderm characteristics.

II. Animal Diversity-Chordata
 Hemichordates and Invertebrate Chordates: Evolutionary Perspective: Phylogenetic Relationships and considerations.
 Fishes: Structural and functional adaptations of fishes.
 Amphibians: Movement onto land and early evolution of terrestrial vertebrates.
 Reptiles: Characteristics of reptiles, adaptations in reptilians.
 Birds: Migration and navigation, adaptations.
 Mammals: Structural and functional adaptations of mammals.

III. Principles of Animal Life
 The chemical basis of animal life: Brief introduction to bio-molecules; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
 Cell concept and cell theory, Organization of cellular organelle (their structure and functions), Central dogma of cell biology (Transcription and Translation), Meiosis and Mitosis
 Protozoa: Reproduction pattern in protozoan, Parasitism in protozoan
 Mesozoza and Parazoa: Porifera: Cells types, body wall and skeleton and water currents system, Coelenterata: Reproduction plan and alteration of generation (Polymorphism)
 Tissues Types: epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous tissues; organs and organ systems.
 Enzymes function and factors affecting their activity, cofactors and coenzymes.

Energy Harvesting: Aerobic and anaerobic respiration the major source of ATP.
 Mendel’s law of inheritance, Chromosomal basis of inheritance, Multiple alleles, Eukaryotic chromosomes: Mutations and chromosomal aberrations.
 Ecological Concepts: Interactions, Concepts and components of ecosystem, Food chain, Food web, Biogeochemical cycles, Forests, Biomes, Wildlife conservation and management, Environmental pollution, Green house effect, Acid rain, Global warming and climate change.
 Evolution: Darwinian evolutionary theory based on natural selection and the evidence, Microevolution: Genetic variation and change within species, Macroevolution: Species and speciation (Allopatric, Parapatric and Sympatric speciation)

IV. Animal Form and Function
 Protection, Support and Movement: Integumentary system of invertebrates and vertebrates; Animal muscles: the muscular system of invertebrates and vertebrates.
 Digestion and Nutrition: Feeding mechanism, Digestion, Organization and regional function of alimentary canal, Regulation of food intake, Nutritional requirements
 Internal Fluids and Respiration: Internal fluid environment, Composition of blood, Circulation and respiration mechanisms
 Homeostasis: Excretion, Vertebrate kidney mechanisms, Temperature regulation
 Nervous Coordination: Nervous system and Senses: Functional units of nervous system, Synapses junctions between nerves.
 Chemical Coordination: Endocrine System; Vertebrate endocrine glands and types of hormones, Mechanism of hormones action,
 Animal Behavior: Learning, Habituation, Insight learning, latent learning, classical learning: Control of Behavior; social behavior


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